Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) listed on the Uganda Securities Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2013 abridged results.For more information about Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) 2013 abridged results.Company ProfileStanbic Bank Uganda Limited is a leading financial institution in Uganda offering banking products and services to the retail, commercial and corporate segments. Its product offering ranges from savings, fixed deposits and call accounts to term loans, mortgage lending products and vehicle and equipment finance. The commercial division offers investment banking services ranging from corporate finance, debt primary market, securitisation and equity capital to exchange control advisory, credit trading, equity derivatives and interest rate trading and lending. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited targets the oil and gas, power and infrastructure, public, consumer and financial institution sectors in Uganda. The company has an extensive network of branches, ATMs and customer service centres. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited is a subsidiary of Stanbic Africa Holdings Limited. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited is listed on the Uganda Securities Exchange
Master and pupil: New Ireland captain Jamie Heaslip will receive unequivocal support from Brian O’DriscollBy David BlairWHEN DECLAN Kidney named his extended 39-man training squad for the Six Nations, there’s no doubt the announcement was overshadowed by, perhaps, his boldest decision of his five-year tenure as Irish head coach.The news that Jamie Heaslip would continue to captain Ireland, having led them through the Autumn Series, raised eyebrows from Limerick to Donegal. That Brian O’Driscoll, who had been captain of the national side since 2003, was relieved of his captaincy duties in Ireland provoked a suitably divisive debate, with the decision praised and derided in equal measure, with unexpectedly strong criticism from former internationals. The latter of which is both surprising and, to my mind, inappropriate.No-one can doubt the O’Driscoll legacy. He was the pick of a golden generation in Ireland, arguably their greatest ever. But those critical of Kidney’s decision appear to suggest that their talisman has been deprived of an opportunity to decide how and when he would relinquish those duties.Guiding light: O’Driscoll has offered leadership for 10 yearsSurely, though, it’s the sole responsibility of the head coach to select his captain, especially when his own role may be decided in the coming months. You cannot take that decision away from him, and contrary to Declan Kidney’s previously conservative approach, Heaslip would appear to be the logical, forward-thinking choice.By his own admission, O’Driscoll, 34, knows the 2015 World Cup is too far down the line, this may even prove to be his last Six Nations. He’s only played in three competitive fixtures since returning from an injury suffered in November. And although he will start the opener against Wales, it would be surprising if injury doesn’t rule him out of at least one of the five championship fixtures.Declan Kidney stated that he wants his former captain to concentrate on his own game, removing the burden of leadership, in an official capacity at least. But O’Driscoll’s influence goes beyond the armband. His captaincy style was to lead by example, inspiring those around him to play over and above their potential. It’s absurd to think that’s going to change because of this recent decision.O’Driscoll’s unrivalled experience, a record 83 of his 120 international caps have been as captain, will be an invaluable asset to Heaslip as he carries on from where he left off in the autumn. Ireland benefited from his fresh approach, and an influx of new faces end a hitherto disappointing 2012 with a resurgent victory over Argentina. Nevertheless Jamie Heaslip leads a strong squad with more than enough ammunition to mount a serious challenge. Should it be O’Driscoll’s final swansong, I don’t believe it matters a jot that he’s not captain, he’ll be as determined as ever to [email protected]_dave While it’s tempting to be swept away by the potential significance of that November victory over an Argentine squad physically and mentally fatigued after their exploits in the inaugural Rugby Championship, there is a sense Ireland turned a corner in that last fixture of 2012. Led by Heaslip, a new generation were beginning to show glimpses of a promising future.France-bound: Jonny Sexton is in superlative formMoving forward, Declan Kidney should hope to avoid a repeat situation where O’Driscoll and Paul O’Connell were expected to carry the burden of leadership in the Irish camp. Within this Six Nations training squad there are twelve players with 30 international caps or more, such as Rory Best and Jonny Sexton, who need to share the responsibility of leadership with Heaslip as Ireland look towards the future, sans O’Driscoll.There was a danger that this captaincy debate could undermine an otherwise positive build-up to the championship. But sense appears to have prevailed in large part to O’Driscoll himself, stressing that Heaslip would receive his full support in the coming weeks and months, regardless of any personal disappointment. You wouldn’t expect any less but it seems to have hushed the critics somewhat.Looking ahead, there’s good reason to be positive about Irish hopes. There’s a healthy balance in the squad of relative newcomers keen to kick on from the autumn supported by a core group of experienced internationals bolstered by those returning from long-term injury.Other reasons to be hopeful are the form of Jonny Sexton, Paris-bound in the summer, but an integral cog in the Irish backs division, and Cian Healy. In his current state of mind, no object, opponent or otherwise, looks immovable. Rob Kearney too will hope for a strong showing.The one glaring weakness is a desperate lack of depth at tight-head beyond the presumably bubble-wrapped Mike Ross, hardly a shocking revelation. Ireland’s ongoing problems in this position are no secret yet they look no closer to a solution despite an apparent global search for props with Irish grannies, which yielded only further embarrassment. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS PARIS, FRANCE – MARCH 04: Jonny Sexton of Ireland kicks the ball upfield during the RBS Six Nations match between France and Ireland at Stade de France on March 4, 2012 in Paris, France. (Photo by David Rogers/Getty Images)
Linkedin Facebook printAs residents adjust to the open carry law which went into effect Jan 1., local businesses are deciding if they will permit open carrying of guns in their establishments.Check out the map below for a list of which local businesses are permitting open carry and which aren’t around the 76109 ZIP code.The open carry law allows Texas residents with concealed hand gun permits to now openly carry their firearms in a shoulder or hip holster. The law also allows business to decide if they will be allowing open carry on a case by case basis.According to the Chapter 30.07 of the Texas Penal Code, establishments that wish to restrict open carry must post a sign at any entrance to the building that states a person may not enter the property with a gun that is openly carried. That message must also be posted in contrasting colors using block letters at least an inch tall in both English and Spanish, according to the code.They can also prohibit handguns that are concealed; however, they must post a second sign that specifically prohibits concealed carry.Many businesses haven’t posted signs outside their businesses yet, but they have the ability to verbally tell customers that open carry isn’t permitted. Breakdown: Cambridge Analytica, information warfare Elizabeth Campbellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/elizabeth-campbell/ Elizabeth Campbellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/elizabeth-campbell/ Twitter CRES negotiates move to interdisciplinary unit amid student resistance Previous articleThe Skiff: January 14, 2016Next articleStudent Development hosts annual organizations fair Elizabeth Campbell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Alumna joins ‘Survivor’ reality show in quest for a million dollars Elizabeth Campbell is executive editor of TCU 360 and a senior journalism and political science double major. When not in the newsroom, she’s thinking about the news while probably watching TCU football or being a history nerd. Send her a tip if you have a story to share! ReddIt Fort Worth set to elect first new mayor in 10 years Saturday WATCH: Former Chief of Staff for Obama talks Trump administration, Democrats, liberal arts education Elizabeth Campbellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/elizabeth-campbell/ Elizabeth Campbellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/elizabeth-campbell/ Linkedin Twitter Elizabeth Campbell Abortion access threatened as restrictive bills make their way through Texas Legislature Facebook Grains to grocery: One bread maker brings together farmers and artisans at locally-sourced store + posts ReddIt
Facebook The Skiff: Dec. 5, 2019 ReddIt ReddIt The Skiff by TCU360TCU Box 298050Fort Worth, TX [email protected] printFailed to fetch Error: URL to the PDF file must be on exactly the same domain as the current web page. Click here for more infoVolume 115, issue 08: Fun times in CowtownAlso: Neeley renovations, haunted house, sexual assault awareness and more. The Skiff Volume 115, issue 08 Facebook Life in Fort Worth Twitter Linkedin The Skiffhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/the-skiff/ The Skiffhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/the-skiff/ Linkedin Previous articleTCU takes a new step to help sexual assault victimsNext articleFort Worth homeless struggle with mental illness The Skiff RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR The Skiffhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/the-skiff/ The Skiff: Nov. 7, 2019 The Skiff Twitter + posts The Skiff: Nov. 14, 2019 The Skiffhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/the-skiff/ Welcome TCU Class of 2025 A fox’s tail: the story of TCU’s campus foxes The Skiff: Nov. 21, 2019
Facebook Novus Capital Announces Appointment of Three New Board Advisors By Digital AIM Web Support – February 22, 2021 Pinterest Twitter Pinterest WhatsApp TAGS Local NewsBusiness Facebook WhatsApp INDIANAPOLIS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 22, 2021– Novus Capital, a company focused on sustainability and social equity through technological innovation, announces three new Board Advisors: Trevor Neilson, Rini Greenfield and Phillip Bayt. “One of the key values Novus brings to our startup partners is the depth and diversity of our Board and Board Advisors’ expertise,” said Bob Laikin, co-founder of Novus Capital. “Trevor, Rini and Phillip are each proven leaders in their respective fields, and we’re proud to have them join us.” Trevor Neilson is co-founder, Chairman and CEO of WasteFuel, a next-generation fuel company that develops low-carbon biofuels from waste. Previously, he served as co-founder and CEO of i(x) investments, a leading impact-investing platform. Neilson continues to serve as chairman of the firm. Named by the World Economic Forum as a Young Global Leader, Neilson served in the White House during the Clinton administration and served on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre International Advisory Network. Other posts have included co-founder at the Global Philanthropy Group, executive director of the Global Business Coalition, and director of public affairs at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. “I’m thrilled to be joining Novus Capital as part of its ESG strategy,” Neilson said. “There’s tremendous potential in this area, and it’s exciting to be included.” Rini Greenfield is the founding General Partner of Rethink Food, a social impact fund investing in early-stage food technology companies. She also was a co-founder of Adaptive Management, a Tiger Management LLC fund, where she helped pioneer the use of big data analysis for fundamental long-term investments. With over a decade of experience investing in technology and consumer companies, she has deep relationships with technologists, operators and investors worldwide. “In just a short time, Novus has made a tremendous impact with its focus on ESG and sustainable practices,” Greenfield said. “It’s an honor to assist in its next phase of impactful investing.” Phillip Bayt, former Chief Managing Partner for the Indianapolis law firm Ice Miller, practiced in the firm’s Real Estate Group. He brings extensive experience in commercial real estate, gaming, finance, development, joint ventures, real estate funds, real estate taxes, workouts and foreclosures, construction law and leasing. He’s represented both for-profit and non-profit clients in significant commercial transactions. “I am excited to join the Novus Capital team,” Bayt said. “This is a tremendous opportunity to take part in deeply meaningful work.” Novus Capital successfully merged its first special purpose acquisition company (SPAC), Novus Capital Corporation I, into AppHarvest (NASDAQ: APPH) on January 29, 2021. AppHarvest is an applied technology company building some of the world’s largest indoor farms in Appalachia. The company combines conventional agricultural techniques with cutting-edge technology and is addressing key issues including improving access for all to nutritious food, farming more sustainably, building a home-grown food supply, and increasing investment in Appalachia. Bob Laikin, Larry Paulson, Hersch Klaff, Jeff Foster, Ron Sznaider and Heather Goodman of Novus Capital launched a second SPAC, Novus Capital Corporation II, (NYSE: NXU.U) on February 3, 2021. The SPAC raised $287.5 million during its IPO. It will now focus on identifying a potential acquisition in the sustainable smart technology and ESG space. About Novus Capital Novus Capital is a company focused on sustainability, ESG and social equity through technological innovation. The company is led by Robert J. Laikin, Larry Paulson and Jeffrey Foster, who have significant hands-on experience helping high-tech companies optimize their existing and new growth initiatives by exploiting insights from rich data assets and intellectual property that already exist within most high-tech companies. Novus Capital recently listed its second special purpose acquisition company (SPAC), Novus Capital Corporation II (NYSE: NXU.U), on February 3, 2021. View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005245/en/ CONTACT: Robert J. Laikin [email protected] 317-590-6959 KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA INDIANA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY FINANCE BANKING OTHER TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONAL SERVICES SOFTWARE DATA MANAGEMENT OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES SOURCE: Novus Capital Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/22/2021 07:00 AM/DISC: 02/22/2021 07:01 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005245/enCopyright Business Wire 2021. Twitter Previous articleIn Israel and beyond, virus vaccines bring political powerNext articleJuniper Research: Smart Traffic Management to Significantly Reduce Congestion and Emissions; Saving Cities $277 Billion by 2025 Digital AIM Web Support
Top Stories’Don’t Intend To Retract My Tweets Or Apologize’, Kunal Kamra Responds To AG’s Consent For Contempt Against Him LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK13 Nov 2020 12:58 AMShare This – xComedian Kunal Kamra on Friday said that he does not intend to retract his tweets or apologize for them after the Attorney General of India granted nod to initiate criminal contempt of court proceedings against him for the comments made by him about the Supreme Court in the wake of interim bail granted to Arnab Goswami.”My view hasn’t changed because the silence of the Supreme Court of India…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginComedian Kunal Kamra on Friday said that he does not intend to retract his tweets or apologize for them after the Attorney General of India granted nod to initiate criminal contempt of court proceedings against him for the comments made by him about the Supreme Court in the wake of interim bail granted to Arnab Goswami.”My view hasn’t changed because the silence of the Supreme Court of India on matters of other’s personal liberty cannot go uncriticised. I don’t intend to retract my tweets or apologize for them. I believe they speak for themselves,” he said in a statement posted on Twitter, addressed to the judges and the attorney general.He added that the “silence of the SupremeCourt on matters of other’s personal liberty cannot go uncriticized”.In the statement published through Twitter, Kamra suggested that the time required for the contempt hearing against him may be spent on other important pending matters such as “demonetization petition, a petition challenging the revocation of J&K’s special status, the matter of the legality of electoral bonds or countless other matters that are deserving of more time and attention”.’Will not retract my tweets or apologize’, says comedian Kunal Kamra, after the Attorney General granted nod to initiate criminal contempt of court proceedings against him for his tweets about the Supreme Court in the wake of interim bail granted to #ArnabGowswami pic.twitter.com/O7PnU1v1AP— Live Law (@LiveLawIndia) November 13, 2020 It was on Thursday that the Attorney General granted consent to initiate criminal contempt proceedings against Kunal Kamra.Finding Kamra’s tweet to be highly objectionable, the AG granted his consent under Section 15(1)(b) of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 to initiate criminal contempt. He said, “I find that today people believe that they can boldly and brazenly condemn the Supreme Court of India and its judges by exercising what they believe is their freedom of speech. But under the Constitution, the freedom of speech is subject to the law of contempt and I believe that it is time that people understand that attacking the Supreme Court of India unjustifiedly and brazenly will attract punishment under the Contempt of Courts Act, 1972.”The AG’s letter referred to Kamra’s comments such as ‘honour has left the building(Supreme Court) long back’ and ‘Supreme Court of the country is the most Supreme joke of the country’. The AG also noted that apart from these comments, Kamra posted a picture of the Supreme Court dressed in saffron colour with the flag of the ruling party, the BJP.Taking strong exception to this tweet, the AG commented:”This is a gross insinuation against the entirety of the Supreme Court of India that the Supreme Court of India is not an independent and impartial institution and so too its judges, but on the other hand is a court of the ruling party, the BJP, existing only for the BJP’s benefit”.Kamra had made a series of tweets regarding the Supreme Court and initiation of contempt against him has been sought for 4 of his tweets posted in the wake of the Supreme Court granting interim bail to Arnab Goswami.Complaining against the same, several letter petitions were sent to the AG by law students and lawyers stating that the tweets and publications scandalize the Supreme Court and prejudice the minds of millions of people.”During the course of the proceedings and also subsequent to the verdict, Mr. Kunal Kamra a stand-up comedian by profession through his Twitter handle having 1.7 million followers @kunalkamra88 published a series of tweets to scandalizes SC”, one of the letter read.”If this kind of unruly and salacious statements are allowed to go unchecked, influencers having millions of social media followers would start making reckless allegations and diabolical statements against the judges,” another letter said.Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. 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Community Enhancement Programme open for applications Previous articleNew protocols for Covid-19 testingNext articleFormer Donegal TD Hugh Conaghan dies aged 93 News Highland Homepage BannerNews By News Highland – March 25, 2020 Twitter Google+ Facebook WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Publicans in Republic watching closely as North reopens further Twitter Pinterest Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme WhatsApp Google+ Pinterest Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Facebook Primary Care Services are to be scaled by in Donegal and the North West as a result of large numbers of staff being deployed to frontline Covid-19 response services.Primary Care includes GP services, Public Health Nurses and a range of other services like Dental, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Speech and Language Therapy, Psychology, Dietetics, Podiatry, Opthalmics and Community Pharmacy.The revision has meant that only critical and vital services will be provided. Some necessary services and all desired services will be curtailed and/or cancelled until such time that they can be resumed.Edel Quinn is General Manager of Primary Care in Community Health Organisation Area 1, which includes Donegal…………Audio Playerhttps://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/edelq.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.*****************HSE statement in full25th March 2020HSE Media Statement – HSE CHO 1 Revision of Primary Care ServicesWe wish to thank the public for their on-going support as all parts of our health services respond to COVID-19.Due to current demands on the system, and as a result of large numbers of staff being deployed to frontline Covid-19 response services, our Primary Care Service provision has had to be revised.Primary Care Services are all of the health or social care services that you can find in your community, outside of the acute hospital. They include GPs, Public Health Nurses and a range of other services like Dental, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Speech and Language Therapy, Psychology, Dietetics, Podiatry, Opthalmics and Community Pharmacy.Revision of the Primary Care Service has meant that only critical and vital services will be provided. Some necessary services and all desired services will be curtailed and/or cancelled until such time that they can be resumed.Examples of critical and vital services include GP services, Public Health Nursing and Community Pharmacy services; emergency aids and appliance provision; essential immunisation services; emergency Dental and Ophthalmic services; and any service that is required to respond to a service user being at high risk.Chief Officer CHO 1 Mr John Hayes stated “We would like to thank members of the public for their co-operation thus far. We appreciate that the revision of our Primary Care Services impacts directly on service users and we would ask that you continue to work with us in the interests of patient and staff safety to ensure that we manage this as effectively as possible.”For further information in relation to your Primary Care Service, please contact your service provider. In relation to cancellation of appointments, your service provider will communicate this with you. If you are feeling unwell and have a scheduled appointment, please contact your service provider prior to your appointment.Anyone with general concerns should firstly visit HSE.ie/coronavirus. If you still have concerns, you can ring HSELive on 1850 24 1850. HSELive is an information line only and can’t order coronavirus tests.We wish to reiterate that anyone with symptoms should not show up at their GP/ GP Out of Hours Service or ED unannounced.Symptoms of coronavirus are a cough, shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, fever (high temperature). If you develop symptoms you will need to self-isolate and phone your GP. The people in your household need to restrict their movements.Do not go to a GP surgery, pharmacy or hospital. The GP will assess you over the phone. If they think you need to be tested for coronavirus, they will arrange a test.We would like to remind the public that the most important steps we can all take right now are:1) Wash our hands, thoroughly and regularly for at least 20 seconds.2) Stop the spread of infections by covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, either with a tissue or your arm.3) Abide by Social Distancing. This is important to help slow the spread of coronavirus. It does this by minimising contact between potentially infected individuals and healthy individuals.4) Go to HSE.ie/coronavirus for the best and most current information as the situation evolves. HSE Primary Care Services to be curtailed or cancelled Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA
Whitepointer/iStock(NEW YORK) — A great white shark measuring nearly 10 feet long has been spotted in Long Island Sound off the Connecticut shore for the first time ever, researchers said on Monday.The great white was being tracked Monday by the ocean research group Ocearch, the organization said on Twitter.“Be advised! For the first time ever, we are tracking a white shark in the Long Island Sound,” Ocearch researchers tweeted.The group said the shark measures 9-feet-8-inches and was spotted off the shore of Greenwich, Connecticut.This is a breaking news story. Please check back for updates. Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article From the reference manualOn 1 Mar 2003 in Personnel Today In this series, we delve into the XpertHR reference manual to findessential information relating to one of our features. This month’s topic isemployment contractsSUMMARY– It is important for contract terms to be in writing – Terms may be assumed by the courts to be implied if there are no writtenterms – The contract should be seen as a flexible compromise between the needs ofthe parties – The contract assumes great importance when the parties are in dispute – Statutory protection for employees may be dependent on the contract terms IMPORTANCE OF WRITTEN TERMSInevitably, there will be disagreements about the terms and conditions ofemployment. These can be solved without recourse to litigation if the contractterms are clear and unambiguous. If the terms are verbal, or not evenspecifically agreed upon by the parties involved, the situation is ripe fordispute, and there is nothing to hand to clarify the terms. It should not be assumed that verbal terms cannot be proved. The claimant –frequently the employee – must prove their claim, and if they have someevidence, the burden of proof passes to the employer. The court or tribunalwill then make its decision on the balance of probabilities. In practice, theevidence may be no more than what each party alleges it said or heard.Therefore, both employee and employer statistically have a 50 per cent chanceof success. If terms are verbally agreed, it is helpful to have a note of these terms,either made at the time, or immediately afterwards. This could be placed onfile or take the form of a letter confirming the agreement or new term. This isnot absolute proof of the term, but it is admissible evidence, and can bevaluable. Key terms, such as work, location, hours, pay, holiday and notice, have tobe given to the employee in writing by the end of their second month ofemployment. This is not a contract, but good evidence of the terms as seen bythe employer. IMPLIED TERMSIf there is no written agreement on a particular issue, the court ortribunal may assume a term is implied. This could be based on: – The conduct of the parties – A custom in the workplace, trade or area of employment or the region ofemployment – A custom implied in common law – The fact the court or tribunal believes the parties would have agreed tothe term had it been put to them Reliance on implied terms only results in uncertainty, as there can be noguarantee that a term will be implied or what that term will be. As impliedterms cannot override an express term, it is advisable to put the terms inwriting. IMPORTANCE OF THE CONTRACTThe contract does not have to be fair or reasonable – the courts willenforce it as agreed. However, a contract too one-sided is not likely to resultin a long or harmonious relationship. The contract is best regarded as acompromise between the (sometimes conflicting) needs of both parties. There is no automatic power to change the contract terms. So an employerwanting flexibility must build this into the employee’s contract. Similarly,neither employer nor employee should assume that conduct contrary to thecontract terms, means the actual contract has changed. Conduct or custom canfill the gaps in the contract, but do not override contract terms. The most generally recognised benefit of the contract – especially a writtenone – is its usefulness in avoiding disputes. It is decisive in a breach ofcontract claim, as the contract terms alone can be taken into account. It is less decisive in unfair dismissal claims, although it is certainlyimportant when the employee alleges constructive unfair dismissal. This iswhere the employee has resigned, but their resignation has been caused by aserious breach of contract by the employer (Employment Rights Act 1996, section95(1)(c)). This breach must be a breach of an actual contract term such as in WesternExcavating (ECC) Limited v Sharp 1978 IRLR 27 CA. But when deciding whether the dismissal was fair, the contract terms are notall-powerful. The tribunal may decide the dismissal was fair, even if theemployer has broken the contract. In Farrant v The Woodroffe School 1998 IRLR 176 EAT, the employerinsisted on a change of duties, even though it was in breach of contract. Theemployer had been wrongly advised that it had a legal right to make the change.However, taking all the circumstances into account, the Employment AppealTribunal decided that the dismissal was fair. STATUTORY PROVISIONSSome statutory provisions are based on the contract terms, and protection againstunfair dismissal is only given to employees. It is dependent on the contractbeing one of employment, and is generally denied to the self-employed. Theyhave some limited rights to claim unfair dismissal, such as when they have beendismissed because they sought to exercise their right to a representative indisciplinary or grievance proceedings (Employment Relations Act 1999, section13 referring to the Employment Rights Act 1996, section 230(3)). In other situations, statute provides a minimum benefit which replaces anylesser term in the contract, as with statutory minimum notice in the EmploymentRights Act 1996, section 86. PRACTICAL EXAMPLEFacts: A shop expected its staff to work additional hours in therun-up to Christmas. The contract made no provision for overtime, simplystating that their hours of work were ‘9am to 5.30pm with an hour for lunch’.The staff had worked the additional Christmas hours for several years withoutcomplaint, but this year there had been a pay dispute, and the employees werenot happy. They refused to work the additional hours, so the employer held adisciplinary hearing and dismissed them. It was surprised when the tribunalupheld the employees’ claims of breach of contract and unfair dismissal. Comment: The contract set out the hours of work. The custom ofworking the additional hours did not change the express contract term, so theemployer had broken the contract. It had dismissed the employees for refusingto do something they were not legally bound to do. This is normally ruled as anunfair dismissal, and would be here. The employer should have carefully considered the work requirements andincluded a contractual term permitting them to require staff to work overtime.It would be difficult to change the contract to include such a term as theemployees would be unlikely to accept it and there is no automatic right tochange the terms. But, having restored good relations with staff beforehand,this is what the employer needs to do. If this cannot be achieved, then theemployer would need to be more conciliatory in its overtime requests.QUESTIONS& ANSWERSWhyare written terms of employment important?Disagreementsover the terms and conditions of employment can be solved without litigation ifthe contract terms are clear and unambiguous. When the terms are agreedverbally, or are not agreed to by both parties, the situation is open todispute. Terms agreed verbally should be noted either at the time of theagreement, or immediately afterwards.Whatare written particulars and when should the employee receive them?Writtenparticulars of the key terms of employment, such as hours, pay, holiday andnotice, must be given to the employee in writing by the end of their secondmonth of employment. That statement is not the actual contract, but providesgood evidence of the terms as seen by the employer.Whathappens if there is no written agreement of the contractual terms?Thecourt or tribunal may assume a term is implied based on the conduct of theparties, a custom in the workplace or the industry as a whole, a custom impliedat common law, or its belief that the parties would have agreed the term had itbeen put to them. Relianceon implied terms results in uncertainty, so it is best to put all contractterms in writing.Canworkplace custom or conduct override the written terms of a contract?Notusually. The courts tend to enforce the contract as agreed. The contract doesnot have to be fair or reasonable. An employer requiring flexibility must buildthis into the staff contract. Neither employer nor employee should assume thatconduct contrary to the contract terms would change the contract. Conduct orcustom can fill the gaps in the contract, but cannot usually override the contractterms. However, it is possible for custom to override written terms – if, forexample, it has been customary for many years to ignore a written term, and theemployees have reasonably come to expect it to be ignored. Inwhat types of dispute are contracts important?Ina breach of contract claim, the terms are decisive. They are less decisive inunfair dismissal claims, although they are important when the employee allegesconstructive unfair dismissal. This is where the employee has resigned, buttheir resignation was caused by a serious breach of contract by the employer. Inredundancy cases, tribunals do not always use the contractual definitions wheninterpreting the statutory redundancy provisions.Arestatutory provisions dependent on the type of contract?Somestatutory rights, such as unfair dismissal and redundancy pay, are dependent onthe contract being one of employment, and are generally denied to those who areself-employed.